Sources and Notes

Armitage, Gilbert, The History of the Bow Street Runners 1729-1829, Wishart and Co., London, 1932. Print

Ballingrud, D. “Profilers warm to killer’s trail”, St.Petersburg Times, 19 July, 2002. Web. 12/5/15

Eugene Francois Vidocq] (1775-1857) was a roguish French detective considered by some “the father of modern criminal investigation.” As a young man he served time in prison for petty offenses before joining forces with the state to create the French police de surete or security police. His background among thieves in Paris and elsewhere served him well in his new role, and in time Vidocq ran a squad of 28 detectives, all of whom were former criminals. A master of disguise and surveillance, Vidocq is credited with a number of crime-fighting innovations, including indexed record keeping, ballistics studies, and plaster of Paris casts of foot and shoe impressions. His exploits are said to figure in the writings of Herman Melville, Victor Hugo and [Edgar Allan Poe].

Barnes, Michael, “The Cold War Home Front: McCarthyism”, Web. 1/16/16.

Berit, Kjos, “The Fall and Rise of Human Violence-Why crime plunged in the 17th century but is rising again in the 21st, 2003 (Updated in 2011). Web. 12/7/15

Bloss, William, “Escalating U.S. Police Surveillance after 9/11: an Examination of Causes and Effects”, Surveillance & Society, Special Issue on ‘Surveillance and Criminal Justice’ Part 1, 2007. Web. 12/15/15.

Bonanza, episode #316, “Mark of Guilt”, Aired on NBC 12/15/68, rebroadcast on KTVU TV-20, public airwaves, 1/23/16.
Hop Sing explains how fingerprint differences (called “chop”) had been used for hundreds of years in China to identify pottery makers. He uses this to prove Little Joe innocent of a murder charge and identifying the killer at Joe’s trial as one of the jurors. This information about the “chop” proved accurate after further research.

Britannica, “Criminal Investigation” Web. 11/2/15.

Barnes, Michael , “The Cold War Home Front: McCarthyism”, The Authentic History Center. Web. 1/15/16.

Church, Frank, US Senate Committee on Intelligence, Meet the Press Statement on Surveillance Capability. Web. 12/15/16.

Computer History Museum, “History of the Internet, 1962-92”. Web. 12/17/15.

Criminality Web Log,“Origins of the Modern Police and the History of Criminal Investigation”, Posted on February 5, 2011. Web. 12/20/15.

Desai, Deven R., “Constitutional Limits on Surveillance: Associational Freedom in the Age of Data Hoarding”, Georgia Institute of Technology – Scheller College of Business,
December 1, 2014, Notre Dame Law Review, Vol. 90, No. 2, p. 579, 2014, Abstract. Web. 12/23/15.

Duk de Saint Simone, Louis XIV Court Description, n.d., Web. 12/15/15.

Federal Bureau of Investigation, “Iris Scan”, Biometric Center of Excellence, n.d. Web. 12/15/15.

Finnemore, John, “The Reign Of Terror and the Rise of Napoleon”, France: Peeps at History. Web. 1/20/16.

Fiset, Louis, “Return to Sender: U.S. Censorship of Enemy Alien Mail in World War II”, Prologue Magazine, Vol. 33, No. 1 (Spring 2001), Web. 1/4/16.

Fisher, Jim, “Eugene-Francois Vidocq: The World’s First Detective”, Forensic Science, Web. 12/12/15.

Foster, Raymond E., LAPD (Ret.), “A Concise History of Policing”, Kindle Edition, Not Dated, Purchased 10/2015.

Friedman, David, “Making Sense of English Law Enforcement in the 18th Century”, 11/ 2009. Web. 12/7/15.
England in the 18th century had no public officials corresponding to either police or district attorneys. Constables were unpaid and played only a minor role in law enforcement. A victim of crime who wanted a constable to undertake any substantial effort in order to apprehend the perpetrator was expected to pay the expenses of doing so. Attempts to create public prosecutors failed in 1855 and again in 1871; when the office of Director of Public Prosecution was finally established in 1879, its responsibilities were very much less than those of an American district attorney, now or then. In 18th century England a system of professional police and prosecutors, government paid and appointed, was viewed as potentially tyrannical and, worse still, French., “The Best File Sharing Apps”,

Griffin, David Ray, The New Pearl Harbor, Olive Branch Press, Northampton, MA, 2004, print.

Gunter, Whitney D., CPO, Christopher A. Hertig, CPP, CPOI , “An Introduction To Theory, Practice And Career Development For Public And Private Investigators”, International Foundation for Protection Officers, August 2005, Web. 10/15/15.

Hardy, Rob, “Setting the Stage for Sherlock”, Book Review, The Ascent of the Detective: Police Sleuths in Victorian and Edwardian England (Oxford University Press) by Haia Shpayer-Makov, The (Ohio) Dispatch, February 14, 2012. Web. 12/11/15.

Hicks, Peter, “The Napoleonic ‘police’ or ‘security state’ in context”,, January, 2009, Web. 12/12/15.
One particularly curious similarity between the Napoleonic Consulate and Empire and the Enlightenment is the idea of the Polizeistaat or Well-ordered state beloved of the Enlightenment. As Marc Raeff has argued: “During the proto-modern era, a strong independent government and a powerful ruler were believed to be the pre-conditions of the spiritual and material welfare of the subjects, and the latter’s happiness was implicitly equated with the maximising of the creative potential of the state in a God-pleasing manner.

History Guy, “Major Wars of the 20th Century”, Web. 12/27/15., “What is a keyhole satellite and what can it really spy on?” 07 December 2000. Web. 05 January 2016.

Infoplease Encyclopedia, “Secret Police”, Web, 11/23/15
The institution of a secret police has existed in most societies where a minority has exercised an uneasy rule over a majority. In ancient Sparta, a well-organized secret police controlled the helots and ruthlessly suppressed any sign of rebellion. In Rome, particularly under the Julian emperors, a professional class of informers who received a share of their victims’ confiscated fortunes, was employed by the state.

Innocence Project, “The Cases, Exoneree Profiles”. Web. 12/12/15.


Joh, Elizabeth E. “Breaking the law to enforce it: undercover police participation in crime”, Stanford Law Review, Dec 1, 2009, via Web, 11/15/15…-a0216682480

Kranich, Nancy, “The Impact of the USA PATRIOT Act on Free Expression”, Free Expression Policy Project, Web. 1/12/16.

Laqueur, W, The New Terrorism: Fanaticism and the Arms of Mass Destruction, New York: 1999, Oxford University Press. Abstract. Web. 12/12/15.
In addressing the new terrorism, Laqueur (1999: 272) suggested that public panic responses to threats of terrorism have profound effects on public life. He stated “True panic is contagious, a crowd phenomenon, not an individual one. The consequences of mass panic in both material and human terms can be huge; they can lead to a paralysis of normal life, epidemics, post-traumatic stress, and tremendous anxiety, especially if the nature and extent of the danger remains unknown.”

Loyola University New Orleans Online, “Blood Typing and Modern Day Forensics”. Web. 1/7/16. (

Mayhew, Stephen, “History of Biometrics”, Biometric Update, January, 2015. Web. 12/27/15.

McGall, Andrew, David DeBolt and Thomas Peele, “BART official: Some cameras on trains are fake”, Contra Costa Times, 1/14/16. Web. 1/17/16.

McLaughlin, Eliott C.; Augie Martin; Randi Kaye (January 7, 2009). “Video of California police shooting spurs investigation”. CNN. Archived from the original on February 13, 2009. Web. 1/12/16.

Meyers, Robinson, “Silicon Valley’s New Spy Satellites”, 1/7/14, The Web. 12./12/15.

“Spy Satellites Fighting Crime from Space”, Web. 12/12/15.

Montagna, Joseph A., “The Industrial Revolution”, Yale-New Haven Teachers Institute, Web. 12/7/15.

Mozilla, Smart on Surveillance video. Web. 12/27/15.

Obama, Barak, US President’s State of the Union Address, January, 2016. Network television, all channels.

Office of the Attorney General, “The Federal Bureau of Investigation’s Compliance with the Attorney General’s Investigative Guidelines (Redacted) Special Report September 2005”, Office of the Inspector General. Web. 12/12/15.
Attorney General Charles J. Bonaparte established the Bureau of Investigation within DOJ in 1908. During the post-World War I period, the Bureau of Investigation was charged with the investigation of suspected anarchists, Bolsheviks, socialists, and other radicals in contemplation of prosecution under the Espionage Act and the Immigration Act.
Since their inception nearly 30 years ago, one of the principal legal constraints under which the FBI has operated has been the Attorney General Guidelines. The FBI does not operate under a general statutory charter but, rather, under Attorney General Guidelines that have been revised from time to time pursuant to the authorities set forth in 28 U.S.C. §§ 509, 510, and 533.”

Orwell, George, 1984, Secker & Warburg, London, 1948, Print.

Orwell,George, “You and the Atomic Bomb”, Web. 1/15/16., “All About Integrated Automated Fingerprint Identification System (IAFIS), Mar 1, 2009, Courtesy of Web. 1/7/16.

Pringle, Patrick, Hue and Cry, The Story of Henry and John Fielding and the Bow Street Runners, Wm. Morrow and Co., Great Britain, n.d., Print.

Public Broadcasting System, Jean-Paul Bertaud quote on Napoleon spies, Web. 12/5/15.

Real Police Net, “History of Law Enforcement”, (n.d.), Web, 11/5/15,
. . . the argument could be made that captured Nubian slaves were the first police force. This group was often put to work as marketplace guards, Praetorian guards, or in other mercenary-like positions. As a police force, their different color, stature, and manner of dress made them quite visible among the Mesopotamians. The idea of visibility could then be regarded as the first principle of crime control.

Regan, Lauren, “Electronic Communications Surveillance”, Monthly Review, 7/1/14, Web. 12/12/15.

Electronic Communications Surveillance

In the US, surveillance of electronic communications is governed primarily by the Electronic Communications Privacy Act of 1986 (ECPA), which is an extension of the 1968 Federal Wiretap act and the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act (FISA). Other legislation, such as the USA PATRIOT Act and the Communications Assistance for Law Enforcement Act, supplement both the ECPA and FISA. The ECPA is divided into three broad areas: wiretaps and “electronic eavesdropping,” stored messages, and pen registers and trap-and-trace devices. Each degree of surveillance requires a particular burden that the government must meet in order to engage in the surveillance. The highest burden is in regards to wiretaps.

“Robust gait recognition by learning and exploiting sub-gait characteristics” (|A364958168&v=2.1&it=r&sid=summon&userGroup=sfpl_main&authCount=1).\

Secrest, William B., Dark and Tangled Threads of Crime: San Francisco’s Famous Police Detective, Isaiah W. Lees, Word Dancer Press, 2004, Print.

Seiple, Samantha, Lincoln’s Spymaster: Allan Pinkerton, America’s First Private Eye, Kindle Edition, Accessed via public library, 12/5/15.

Shaogang Gong and Chen Change Loy and Tao Xiang, Chapter “Security and Surveillance” in book, Visual Analysis of Humans, pp.455-472, by Web, 1/16/16.

Singel, Ryan, “Point, Click … Eavesdrop: How the FBI Wiretap Net Operates”,, 08/29/07. Web. 1/12/16.

Stahl, Leslie, Investigative report on Confidential Informants, 60 Minutes, CBS Network, December 6, 2015. Viewed by author that date. Available at

Stille, Alexander, “Did Knives and Forks Cut Murders?” New York Times, May 3, 2003. Web. 12/7/15

St. John, Bayle, Translator, The Memoirs of the Duke of Saint-Simon on the reign of Louis XIV, and the Regency. 2nd edition. 3 volumes Swan, Sonnenschein, Lowrey, London, 1888 via Web, 11/20/15,_duc_de_Saint-Simon#cite_note-FOOTNOTESaintsbury191147-1

Teorey, Matthew. “Law Enforcement.” American History Through Literature 1870-1920. Ed. Tom Quirk and Gary Scharnhorst. Vol. 2. Detroit: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 2006. 581-585. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 11/20/15.

The History of London, “The Marine Police Establishment, London’s first police force”, Web. 12/10/15

In 1796, “Colquhoun had published the first of two editions of his Treatise on the Police of the Metropolis in which he argued for a centrally-organized police force for London, separated from the judiciary, with publicly salaried officers as was the case in France.”
Patrick Colquohoun was the prophet of the policed society, and . . . was able to move from being a propagandist to a reformer in 1798 when the West India Company backed his plan for a Thames River Police to protect the valuable cargoes in London’s docks from theft and peculation. In 1800, the government decided to fund it through taxation.17 This is a clear example of Brogden’s point that empire amplified the economic motivations for policing which was pioneered by property-owners and then replicated by the state: ‘professional policing was directly linked to the commercial interests of an expanding capitalism’.18 It was imperial trade which created both a tempting concentration of value and an interest group with the influence to use the state to protect it.

Times-Picayune (New Orleans), “An American Vidocq” Profile of Allan Pinkerton, June 29, 1860, Title only. Web. 1/12/16.

Top Surveillance Systems,

US Department of State, Office of the Historian, “U-2 Overflights and the Capture of Francis Gary Powers, 1960”, Web, 1/4/16).

Vicens, AJ and Jaeah Lee, “Here Are 13 Killings by Police Captured on Video in the Past Year”, Most suspects were black. A majority were unarmed. To date, three officers have been charged”, Mother Jones Magazine, Wed May 20, 2015. Web. 1/12/16.

Waddell, Jim, “Isaiah Lees, Gold Rush Detective”, Western Powders, Web Log. 10/25/15.

Wang, Tricia , “Attempts to Stop Terrorists on Social Media Threaten Both Privacy and Anonymity”, Future Tense, Web, 1/15/16., “The Reichstag Fire 9/11”. Web. 12/22/15.

Whitehead, John W., “This Thanksgiving, Let’s Say ‘No Thanks’ to the Tyranny of the American Police State”, Posted 11/25/2015. Web. 12/16/15.

Williams, Chris A., “How insular was Britain’s New Police?”, International Centre for Comparative Criminological Research, Open University, Web, 12/5/15,

Winship, Michael, “The Long Shadows of Nixon and J. Edgar Hoover”,, November 16, 2011. Web. 1/17/16., “Draco and Salon Laws”, n.d., Web. 1/15/16.

World Socialist Web Site, “The US media and the debacle in Iraq”, International Committee of the Fourth International (ICFI), 17 June 2014. Web. 1/16/16.